An Effective Stress Model for Liquefaction

by W. D. Liam Finn, (M.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg., and Dean of Applied Sci.; Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada,
Geoffrey R. Martin, (M.ASCE), Visiting Research Assoc.; Faculty of Applied Sci., Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, and Sr. Lect., Civ. Engrg. Dept., Univ. of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand,
Kwok W. Lee, Research Assoc.; Faculty of Applied Sci., Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada,


Serial Information: Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 1977, Vol. 103, Issue 6, Pg. 517-533


Document Type: Journal Paper

Abstract: The important factors affecting the dynamic response of saturated sand layers to earthquake motions are: (1)The initial shear modulus in situ; (2)the variation of shear modulus with shear strain; (3)contemporaneous generation and dissipation of pore-water pressures; (4)changes in effective mean normal stress; (5)damping; and (6)hardening. Constitutive relations are formulated that take all these factors into account and these are incorporated into a nonlinear method for the dynamic effective stress analysis of saturated sands. The method predicts the phenomenological features of the dynamic response of saturated sand layers that commonly occur as the pore-water pressure rises in the sand during earthquake shaking. It allows the distribution of pore-water pressure and the effects that drainage and internal flow have on the location and time of liquefaction to be determined quantitatively.

Subject Headings: Saturated soils | Soil modulus | Effective stress | Soil pressure | Shear modulus | Shear stress | Pore water

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