An X-Y Hydraulic/Thermal Model for Estuaries

by Ralph R. Boericke, (M.ASCE), Group Leader; Environmental Tech. Lab., General Electric, Re-Entry and Environmental Systems Div., Philadelphia, Pa.,
John M. Hogan, Research Engr.; Environmental Tech. Lab., General Electric, Re-Entry and Environmental Systems Div., Philadelphia, Pa.,


Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1977, Vol. 103, Issue 1, Pg. 19-37


Document Type: Journal Paper

Discussion: Leonard B. P. (See full record)
Closure: (See full record)

Abstract: A two-dimensional time dependent numerical model for partially stratified estuaries is described. The model is based on a coupled solution to the continuity, momentum, and salinity equations in the longitudinal (x) and vertical (z) directions. The hydrostatic approximation is used, and the vertical exchange of momentum, mass and energy is modeled with an eddy viscosity using empirical modifications for stable and unstable stratification. The numerical method is a time and space staggered scheme with the vertical direction treated implicitly. Convection terms in the transport equations are treated with upwind differencing. The model results show good agreement with observed tidal phase lag, current and salinity data. At low freshwater flows, the model predicts a large density-induced circulation (DIC), which strongly influences the dilution of thermal discharges. An important result is that the DIC is not monotonic, being much larger in the deep sections of the river due to recirculation.

Subject Headings: Hydraulic models | Two-dimensional models | Numerical models | Water stratification | Estuaries | Salinity | Numerical methods | Data processing

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