Estimated Indirect Cost of Urban Water Useby Charles H. Lawrance, Dir.; Environmental Engrg., Koebig & Koebig, Inc. Los Angeles, Calif.; and Basin Mgr., Daniel, Mann, Johnson & Mendenhall, Koebig & Koebig, Inc.; as Basin Contractor, State of California, The Resources Agency State Water Control Board for Los Angeles River Basin (4B),
Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1975, Vol. 101, Issue 4, Pg. 517-533
Document Type: Journal Paper
Abstract: Approximate quality-related indirect costs to urban water consumers are estimated to range from about $25/acre-ft (2¢/m³)/100 mg/l total dissolved solids to –35/acre-ft (2.8¢/m³)/100 mg/l total dissolved solids. These costs correspond to the lower and upper ends of the 200-mg/l to 800-mg/l total dissolved solids scale, respectively, generally applicable to the Los Angeles River Basin, in which the total hardness content of the unsoftened water is approximately half of the total dissolved solids content. Industrial water usage is about 20% of the total urban usage, for which annual per capita consumption is approximately 0.2 acre-ft (250 m³). Composite and component cost curves are presented which consider deterioration of domestic plumbing, domestic water heaters, and municipal waterworks equipment, industrial water treatment costs, and domestic and commercial costs for contending with water hardness.
Subject Headings: Municipal water | Dissolved solids | Water use | Water quality | Industries | Basins | Hardness (material) | Rivers and streams | North America | California | Los Angeles | United States
Services: Buy this book/Buy this article
Return to search